Did you know that the Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow is toxic to dogs?
I try to finish up my articles, networking and design by at least 12:30 every day so that I can have an hour or so to myself to clear my head before I fetch my children from school. I decided on a particular occasion to turn on the television, and ended up watching Bondi Vet.
As you know I am animal crazy so when I came across this information the first thing I thought of was “AH BLOG – IT!”
Now this was something that I never even knew about myself and when I posted a facebook status about it, my friends had also learned something new.
Dog lovers know very well how their four paws love chewing things and can more than often get themselves into a spot of trouble. The dog that was brought into Bondi Vet was no different. The lady vet injected the lab to induce nausea and get some idea of what was in her stomach. To cut a long story short – and a cat snickering at a dog getting an enema; it was discovered that doggy dearest ingested some seeds off a Brunfelsia bush. Brunfelsia – better known as Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow.
Who would have guessed that the sweet scented and pretty bush was toxic to dogs?
Who even knew that the bush had seed pods?
I learned quite a bit upon further research.
Crazy cat ladies and horsey people take note: Brunfelsia is not only toxic to dogs, but also cats and horses. If ingested, according to the programme I was watching; the toxicity causes damage to the animal in question’s brain.
This is what I found while researching:
Yesterday Today and Tomorrow:
The leaves are alternate and simple, with shapes generally elliptic to ovate. The flowers are large and tubular, with five broad petals. Typical habitat is light woodland and thickets. The cultivated plant is commonly called “yesterday, today, and tomorrow” due to its colour changes.
Scientific Name: Brunfelsia species
Toxicity: Toxic to Dogs, Cats and Horses
Toxic Principles: Brunfelsamidine
Clinical Signs: Tremors, seizures (for several days), diarrhea, vomiting, hypersalivation, lethargy, in coordination,difficulty walking, walking drunk, and a lot of coughing. On the Onderstepoort pdf it states that if you suspect your dog to have ingested the Burnfelsia that you seek medical assistance immediately.
The following plants are also toxic to dogs and cats in South Africa: The following info is from:
J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2009 Jun;80(2):63-74.
Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in hJ S Afr Vet Assoc. 2009 erbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.
PMID 19831265 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
I then came across the following information which gives a broader knowledge of the toxic plants in question.
Ceriman (Monstera deliciosa) or delicious monster: This is a very common plant in many gardens. This creeping vine is native to the tropical rainforests of southern Mexico, south to Colombia. This member of the arum family is an epiphyte with aerial roots. It has large, leathery, glossy, heart-shaped, green leaves and the plant may grow to a height of 20m.
Symptoms of ingestion: This plant’s leaves, roots and stems have been known to irritate the throat of dogs when chewed as the plant releases insoluble calcium oxalates that inflames the mouth, tongue and lips. It causes excessive drooling, vomiting and difficulty in swallowing.
Inkberry (Cestrum laevigatum): A tree or shrub-like plant that grows to between 6-15m high in coastal regions. They are also found in areas of the Free State and the Mpumalanga provinces where they usually grow to a height of 1-2 m. Their leaves of are about 50mm wide, ranging in colour from dark to light-green. The leaves are easily bruised, emitting an unpleasant odour. The flowers are small, sweet smelling, greenish-yellow, tubular and about 5-25mm long. The flowers grow in clusters from the tips of the branches. Berries are also found on the plants that ripen to a deep purple-black colour and size 10 mm x 5mm.
Symptoms of ingestion: Include salivation, lacrimation, sunken and staring eyes, arched back, abdominal pain (restlessness, grinding of the teeth, groaning, kicking at abdomen, etc.), weakness, muscle tremors, staggering gait, incoordination, aggression, constipation, frequent urination and icterus. The course is often rapid, and some animals are found dead.
Bird of Paradise Flower (Strelitzia reginae): The leaves are big and range from about 10-80 cm broad and 30-200 cm long, similar to a banana leaf in appearance but with a longer petiole, and arranged strictly in two ranks to form a fan-like crown of evergreen foliage. The flowers are produced in a horizontal inflorescence emerging from a stout spathe.
Symptoms of ingestion: Will include mild nausea, vomiting and drowsiness. These symptoms will be caused by ingestion of mainly the fruit and seeds.
Round-leafed Navel-wort (Cotyledon orbiculata): The leaves from this plant contain a bufanolide called cotyledontoxin that is toxic to sheep, goats, horses, cattle, poultry, and dogs, causing a condition known as cotyledonosis. The Navel-wort is a fleshy shrub with woody branches. The leaves are grey to bright green in colour, with a red rim and are usually covered with a waxy layer on the surface. Attractive red to orange tubular, drooping flowers form on a long stalk.
Symptoms of ingestion: Cotyledonosis is poisoning caused by southern Africa plants. Signs include paralysis of tongue and lower jaw, excessive drooling, abdominal pain, convulsions and then death within a few hours. Dogs and cats are normally affected through secondary poisoning that as they eat infected meat.
Lantana (Lancamara): tana This plant is an exotic shrub considered by many people to be an ornamental plant. This plant grows mainly in the moist eastern parts of South Africa. The small trumpet-shaped, yellow to orange, red and mauve to white flowers grow from the stems in big dense clusters, usually with flowers of two different colours occurring in one cluster. Small black berries also grow from the plant and are enjoyed by birds that spread the seeds.
Symptoms of ingestion: Photosensitivity resulting from damage primarily to the liver parenchyma. Signs of ingestion include anorexia, severe depression, icterus and photosensitivity.
Clivia (Clivia miniata): A flower plant native to southern Africa. They are herbaceous, evergreen plants with green strap-like leaves. Individual flowers are more or less bell-shaped occurring in umbels on the stalk above the foliage. Colours typically range from yellow, through orange to red.
Symptoms of ingestion: Vomiting, salvation, diarrhea. Ingestions of large amounts can cause convulsions, low blood pressure, tremors and cardiac arrhythmias. Bulbs are the most poisonous part.
Common toxic plants, fruits and nuts.
The next list of plants, fruits and nuts are not deadly to your dog but if they ingest too much it could lead to some nasty veterinary bills.
Fruit stonespips:, seeds and pips: Be careful of any seeds, stones and pips of most fruits. Fruit pips are generally very high in oils and may contain harmful chemicals e.g. a form of cyanide in apple seeds. All pips and seeds may cause respiratory difficulties such as strenuous-breathing, coughing and sneezing.
Grapes: In large quantities can be toxic to dogs as they may cause vomiting, diarrhoea, lethargy, abdominal pain, lack of appetite and kidney damage.
Hops: Excessive panting, elevated heart rate, seizures and may result in death.
Macadamia and walnuts: Will cause vomiting, hypothermia, abdominal pain, tremors and lethargy.
However pistachios and peanuts are not considered toxic but they have a high fat and oil content that in high doses can be harmful.
Mushrooms: Not all mushrooms are toxic but with so many varieties its best to err on the side of caution. They can have a wide range of symptoms on dogs such as diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, tearing, hallucinations, defecation, liver failure, seizures, drooling, urination, kidney failure, heart damage, hyperactivity and in extreme cases, death.
Onions: Are toxic to dogs.
Potatoes: Potato leaves and stems can cause problems with the digestive, nervous and urinary-systems.
Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum): May cause staggering, trembling, breathing difficulties, weakness, diarrhea, increased water intake and urinating, and in extreme cases death.
According to Life is a Garden, a marketing initiative of the South Africa Nursery Association, the following plants are harmful to pets:
For dogs Ficus, daffodils, cotton lavender, March lilies, irises, English ivy, almonds, lilies of the valley, poinsettia, wisteria, hydrangea, jasmine, philodendrons, yuccas, elephant’s ears, sword lilies, and alpine violets.
For cats Azaleas, chrysanthemums, daffodils, hydrangeas, irises, ivy, marigolds, wisteria, pennyroyal, periwinkles, foxgloves, impatiens, morning glory, amaryllis, mistletoe, philodendron, oleander, elephant’s ears, flax, and kalanchoe.
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Posted on February 3, 2014, in Animal Welfare, Di's Articles, Doggy Style, For Cat Lovers and tagged cats, clivia, delicious monster, dogs, horses, information, inkberry, lantana, navel wort, poison, strelitzia, toxicity, Yeaterday today and tomorrow. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.